Inflation Rate in Japan, 2019

The dollar standard and how the Fed itself created the perfect setup for a stock market crash

Disclaimer: This is neither financial nor trading advice and everyone should trade based on their own risk tolerance. Please leverage yourself accordingly. When you're done, ask yourself: "Am I jacked to the tits?". If the answer is "yes", you're good to go.
We're probably experiencing the wildest markets in our lifetime. After doing some research and listening to opinions by several people, I wanted to share my own view on what happened in the market and what could happen in the future. There's no guarantee that the future plays out as I describe it or otherwise I'd become very rich.
If you just want tickers and strikes...I don't know if this is going to help you. But anyways, scroll way down to the end. My current position is TLT 171c 8/21, opened on Friday 7/31 when TLT was at 170.50.
This is a post trying to describe what it means that we've entered the "dollar standard" decades ago after leaving the gold standard. Furthermore I'll try to explain how the "dollar standard" is the biggest reason behind the 2008 and 2020 financial crisis, stock market crashes and how the Coronavirus pandemic was probably the best catalyst for the global dollar system to blow up.

Tackling the Dollar problem

Throughout the month of July we've seen the "death of the Dollar". At least that's what WSB thinks. It's easy to think that especially since it gets reiterated in most media outlets. I will take the contrarian view. This is a short-term "downturn" in the Dollar and very soon the Dollar will rise a lot against the Euro - supported by the Federal Reserve itself.US dollar Index (DXY)If you zoom out to the 3Y chart you'll see what everyone is being hysterical about. The dollar is dying! It was that low in 2018! This is the end! The Fed has done too much money printing! Zimbabwe and Weimar are coming to the US.
There is more to it though. The DXY is dominated by two currency rates and the most important one by far is EURUSD.EURUSD makes up 57.6% of the DXY
And we've seen EURUSD rise from 1.14 to 1.18 since July 21st, 2020. Why that date? On that date the European Commission (basically the "government" of the EU) announced that there was an agreement for the historical rescue package for the EU. That showed the markets that the EU seems to be strong and resilient, it seemed to be united (we're not really united, trust me as an European) and therefore there are more chances in the EU, the Euro and more chances taking risks in the EU.Meanwhile the US continued to struggle with the Coronavirus and some states like California went back to restricting public life. The US economy looked weaker and therefore the Euro rose a lot against the USD.
From a technical point of view the DXY failed to break the 97.5 resistance in June three times - DXY bulls became exhausted and sellers gained control resulting in a pretty big selloff in the DXY.

Why the DXY is pretty useless

Considering that EURUSD is the dominant force in the DXY I have to say it's pretty useless as a measurement of the US dollar. Why? Well, the economy is a global economy. Global trade is not dominated by trade between the EU and the USA. There are a lot of big exporting nations besides Germany, many of them in Asia. We know about China, Japan, South Korea etc. Depending on the business sector there are a lot of big exporters in so-called "emerging markets". For example, Brazil and India are two of the biggest exporters of beef.
Now, what does that mean? It means that we need to look at the US dollar from a broader perspective. Thankfully, the Fed itself provides a more accurate Dollar index. It's called the "Trade Weighted U.S. Dollar Index: Broad, Goods and Services".
When you look at that index you will see that it didn't really collapse like the DXY. In fact, it still is as high as it was on March 10, 2020! You know, only two weeks before the stock market bottomed out. How can that be explained?

Global trade, emerging markets and global dollar shortage

Emerging markets are found in countries which have been shifting away from their traditional way of living towards being an industrial nation. Of course, Americans and most of the Europeans don't know how life was 300 years ago.China already completed that transition. Countries like Brazil and India are on its way. The MSCI Emerging Market Index lists 26 countries. Even South Korea is included.
However there is a big problem for Emerging Markets: the Coronavirus and US Imports.The good thing about import and export data is that you can't fake it. Those numbers speak the truth. You can see that imports into the US haven't recovered to pre-Corona levels yet. It will be interesting to see the July data coming out on August 5th.Also you can look at exports from Emerging Market economies. Let's take South Korean exports YoY. You can see that South Korean exports are still heavily depressed compared to a year ago. Global trade hasn't really recovered.For July the data still has to be updated that's why you see a "0.0%" change right now.Less US imports mean less US dollars going into foreign countries including Emerging Markets.Those currency pairs are pretty unimpressed by the rising Euro. Let's look at a few examples. Use the 1Y chart to see what I mean.
Indian Rupee to USDBrazilian Real to USDSouth Korean Won to USD
What do you see if you look at the 1Y chart of those currency pairs? There's no recovery to pre-COVID levels. And this is pretty bad for the global financial system. Why? According to the Bank of International Settlements there is $12.6 trillion of dollar-denominated debt outside of the United States. Now the Coronavirus comes into play where economies around the world are struggling to go back to their previous levels while the currencies of Emerging Markets continue to be WEAK against the US dollar.
This is very bad. We've already seen the IMF receiving requests for emergency loans from 80 countries on March 23th. What are we going to see? We know Argentina has defaulted on their debt more than once and make jokes about it. But what happens if we see 5 Argentinas? 10? 20? Even 80?
Add to that that global travel is still depressed, especially for US citizens going anywhere. US citizens traveling to other countries is also a situation in which the precious US dollars would enter Emerging Market economies. But it's not happening right now and it won't happen unless we actually get a miracle treatment or the virus simply disappears.
This is where the treasury market comes into play. But before that, let's quickly look at what QE (rising Fed balance sheet) does to the USD.
Take a look at the Trade-Weighted US dollar Index. Look at it at max timeframe - you'll see what happened in 2008. The dollar went up (shocker).Now let's look at the Fed balance sheet at max timeframe. You will see: as soon as the Fed starts the QE engine, the USD goes UP, not down! September 2008 (Fed first buys MBS), March 2009, March 2020. Is it just a coincidence? No, as I'll explain below. They're correlated and probably even in causation.Oh and in all of those scenarios the stock market crashed...compared to February 2020, the Fed balance sheet grew by ONE TRILLION until March 25th, but the stock market had just finished crashing...can you please prove to me that QE makes stock prices go up? I think I've just proven the opposite correlation.

Bonds, bills, Gold and "inflation"

People laugh at bond bulls or at people buying bonds due to the dropping yields. "Haha you're stupid you're buying an asset which matures in 10 years and yields 5.3% STONKS go up way more!".Let me stop you right there.
Why do you buy stocks? Will you hold those stocks until you die so that you regain your initial investment through dividends? No. You buy them because you expect them to go up based on fundamental analysis, news like earnings or other things. Then you sell them when you see your price target reached. The assets appreciated.Why do you buy options? You don't want to hold them until expiration unless they're -90% (what happens most of the time in WSB). You wait until the underlying asset does what you expect it does and then you sell the options to collect the premium. Again, the assets appreciated.
It's the exact same thing with treasury securities. The people who've been buying bonds for the past years or even decades didn't want to wait until they mature. Those people want to sell the bonds as they appreciate. Bond prices have an inverse relationship with their yields which is logical when you think about it. Someone who desperately wants and needs the bonds for various reasons will accept to pay a higher price (supply and demand, ya know) and therefore accept a lower yield.
By the way, both JP Morgan and Goldmans Sachs posted an unexpected profit this quarter, why? They made a killing trading bonds.
US treasury securities are the most liquid asset in the world and they're also the safest asset you can hold. After all, if the US default on their debt you know that the world is doomed. So if US treasuries become worthless anything else has already become worthless.
Now why is there so much demand for the safest and most liquid asset in the world? That demand isn't new but it's caused by the situation the global economy is in. Trade and travel are down and probably won't recover anytime soon, emerging markets are struggling both with the virus and their dollar-denominated debt and central banks around the world struggle to find solutions for the problems in the financial markets.
How do we now that the markets aren't trusting central banks? Well, bonds tell us that and actually Gold tells us the same!
TLT chartGold spot price chart
TLT is an ETF which reflects the price of US treasuries with 20 or more years left until maturity. Basically the inverse of the 30 year treasury yield.
As you can see from the 5Y chart bonds haven't been doing much from 2016 to mid-2019. Then the repo crisis of September 2019took place and TLT actually rallied in August 2019 before the repo crisis finally occurred!So the bond market signaled that something is wrong in the financial markets and that "something" manifested itself in the repo crisis.
After the repo market crisis ended (the Fed didn't really do much to help it, before you ask), bonds again were quiet for three months and started rallying in January (!) while most of the world was sitting on their asses and downplaying the Coronavirus threat.
But wait, how does Gold come into play? The Gold chart basically follows the same pattern as the TLT chart. Doing basically nothing from 2016 to mid-2019. From June until August Gold rose a staggering 200 dollars and then again stayed flat until December 2019. After that, Gold had another rally until March when it finally collapsed.
Many people think rising Gold prices are a sign of inflation. But where is the inflation? We saw PCE price indices on Friday July 31st and they're at roughly 1%. We've seen CPIs from European countries and the EU itself. France and the EU (July 31st) as a whole had a very slight uptick in CPI while Germany (July 30th), Italy (July 31st) and Spain (July 30th) saw deflationary prints.There is no inflation, nowhere in the world. I'm sorry to burst that bubble.
Yet, Gold prices still go up even when the Dollar rallies through the DXY (sadly I have to measure it that way now since the trade-weighted index isn't updated daily) and we know that there is no inflation from a monetary perspective. In fact, Fed chairman JPow, apparently the final boss for all bears, said on Wednesday July 29th that the Coronavirus pandemic is a deflationary disinflationary event. Someone correct me there, thank you. But deflationary forces are still in place even if JPow wouldn't admit it.
To conclude this rather long section: Both bonds and Gold are indicators for an upcoming financial crisis. Bond prices should fall and yields should go up to signal an economic recovery. But the opposite is happening. in that regard heavily rising Gold prices are a very bad signal for the future. Both bonds and Gold are screaming: "The central banks haven't solved the problems".
By the way, Gold is also a very liquid asset if you want quick cash, that's why we saw it sell off in March because people needed dollars thanks to repo problems and margin calls.When the deflationary shock happens and another liquidity event occurs there will be another big price drop in precious metals and that's the dip which you could use to load up on metals by the way.

Dismantling the money printer

But the Fed! The M2 money stock is SHOOTING THROUGH THE ROOF! The printers are real!By the way, velocity of M2 was updated on July 30th and saw another sharp decline. If you take a closer look at the M2 stock you see three parts absolutely skyrocketing: savings, demand deposits and institutional money funds. Inflationary? No.
So, the printers aren't real. I'm sorry.Quantitative easing (QE) is the biggest part of the Fed's operations to help the economy get back on its feet. What is QE?Upon doing QE the Fed "purchases" treasury and mortgage-backed securities from the commercial banks. The Fed forces the commercial banks to hand over those securities and in return the commercial banks reserve additional bank reserves at an account in the Federal Reserve.
This may sound very confusing to everyone so let's make it simple by an analogy.I want to borrow a camera from you, I need it for my road trip. You agree but only if I give you some kind of security - for example 100 bucks as collateral.You keep the 100 bucks safe in your house and wait for me to return safely. You just wait and wait. You can't do anything else in this situation. Maybe my road trip takes a year. Maybe I come back earlier. But as long as I have your camera, the 100 bucks need to stay with you.
In this analogy, I am the Fed. You = commercial banks. Camera = treasuries/MBS. 100 bucks = additional bank reserves held at the Fed.

Revisiting 2008 briefly: the true money printers

The true money printers are the commercial banks, not the central banks. The commercial banks give out loans and demand interest payments. Through those interest payments they create money out of thin air! At the end they'll have more money than before giving out the loan.
That additional money can be used to give out more loans, buy more treasury/MBS Securities or gain more money through investing and trading.
Before the global financial crisis commercial banks were really loose with their policy. You know, the whole "Big Short" story, housing bubble, NINJA loans and so on. The reckless handling of money by the commercial banks led to actual money printing and inflation, until the music suddenly stopped. Bear Stearns went tits up. Lehman went tits up.
The banks learned from those years and completely changed, forever. They became very strict with their lending resulting in the Fed and the ECB not being able to raise their rates. By keeping the Fed funds rate low the Federal Reserve wants to encourage commercial banks to give out loans to stimulate the economy. But commercial banks are not playing along. They even accept negative rates in Europe rather than taking risks in the actual economy.
The GFC of 2008 completely changed the financial landscape and the central banks have struggled to understand that. The system wasn't working anymore because the main players (the commercial banks) stopped playing with each other. That's also the reason why we see repeated problems in the repo market.

How QE actually decreases liquidity before it's effective

The funny thing about QE is that it achieves the complete opposite of what it's supposed to achieve before actually leading to an economic recovery.
What does that mean? Let's go back to my analogy with the camera.
Before I take away your camera, you can do several things with it. If you need cash, you can sell it or go to a pawn shop. You can even lend your camera to someone for a daily fee and collect money through that.But then I come along and just take away your camera for a road trip for 100 bucks in collateral.
What can you do with those 100 bucks? Basically nothing. You can't buy something else with those. You can't lend the money to someone else. It's basically dead capital. You can just look at it and wait until I come back.
And this is what is happening with QE.
Commercial banks buy treasuries and MBS due to many reasons, of course they're legally obliged to hold some treasuries, but they also need them to make business.When a commercial bank has a treasury security, they can do the following things with it:- Sell it to get cash- Give out loans against the treasury security- Lend the security to a short seller who wants to short bonds
Now the commercial banks received a cash reserve account at the Fed in exchange for their treasury security. What can they do with that?- Give out loans against the reserve account
That's it. The bank had to give away a very liquid and flexible asset and received an illiquid asset for it. Well done, Fed.
The goal of the Fed is to encourage lending and borrowing through suppressing yields via QE. But it's not happening and we can see that in the H.8 data (assets and liabilities of the commercial banks).There is no recovery to be seen in the credit sector while the commercial banks continue to collect treasury securities and MBS. On one hand, they need to sell a portion of them to the Fed on the other hand they profit off those securities by trading them - remember JPM's earnings.
So we see that while the Fed is actually decreasing liquidity in the markets by collecting all the treasuries it has collected in the past, interest rates are still too high. People are scared, and commercial banks don't want to give out loans. This means that as the economic recovery is stalling (another whopping 1.4M jobless claims on Thursday July 30th) the Fed needs to suppress interest rates even more. That means: more QE. that means: the liquidity dries up even more, thanks to the Fed.
We heard JPow saying on Wednesday that the Fed will keep their minimum of 120 billion QE per month, but, and this is important, they can increase that amount anytime they see an emergency.And that's exactly what he will do. He will ramp up the QE machine again, removing more bond supply from the market and therefore decreasing the liquidity in financial markets even more. That's his Hail Mary play to force Americans back to taking on debt again.All of that while the government is taking on record debt due to "stimulus" (which is apparently only going to Apple, Amazon and Robinhood). Who pays for the government debt? The taxpayers. The wealthy people. The people who create jobs and opportunities. But in the future they have to pay more taxes to pay down the government debt (or at least pay for the interest). This means that they can't create opportunities right now due to the government going insane with their debt - and of course, there's still the Coronavirus.

"Without the Fed, yields would skyrocket"

This is wrong. The Fed has been keeping their basic level QE of 120 billion per month for months now. But ignoring the fake breakout in the beginning of June (thanks to reopening hopes), yields have been on a steady decline.
Let's take a look at the Fed's balance sheet.
The Fed has thankfully stayed away from purchasing more treasury bills (short term treasury securities). Bills are important for the repo market as collateral. They're the best collateral you can have and the Fed has already done enough damage by buying those treasury bills in March, destroying even more liquidity than usual.
More interesting is the point "notes and bonds, nominal". The Fed added 13.691 billion worth of US treasury notes and bonds to their balance sheet. Luckily for us, the US Department of Treasury releases the results of treasury auctions when they occur. On July 28th there was an auction for the 7 year treasury note. You can find the results under "Note -> Term: 7-year -> Auction Date 07/28/2020 -> Competitive Results PDF". Or here's a link.
What do we see? Indirect bidders, which are foreigners by the way, took 28 billion out of the total 44 billion. That's roughly 64% of the entire auction. Primary dealers are the ones which sell the securities to the commercial banks. Direct bidders are domestic buyers of treasuries.
The conclusion is: There's insane demand for US treasury notes and bonds by foreigners. Those US treasuries are basically equivalent to US dollars. Now dollar bears should ask themselves this question: If the dollar is close to a collapse and the world wants to get rid fo the US dollar, why do foreigners (i.e. foreign central banks) continue to take 60-70% of every bond auction? They do it because they desperately need dollars and hope to drive prices up, supported by the Federal Reserve itself, in an attempt to have the dollar reserves when the next liquidity event occurs.
So foreigners are buying way more treasuries than the Fed does. Final conclusion: the bond market has adjusted to the Fed being a player long time ago. It isn't the first time the Fed has messed around in the bond market.

How market participants are positioned

We know that commercial banks made good money trading bonds and stocks in the past quarter. Besides big tech the stock market is being stagnant, plain and simple. All the stimulus, stimulus#2, vaccinetalksgoingwell.exe, public appearances by Trump, Powell and their friends, the "money printing" (which isn't money printing) by the Fed couldn't push SPY back to ATH which is 339.08 btw.
Who can we look at? Several people but let's take Bill Ackman. The one who made a killing with Credit Default Swaps in March and then went LONG (he said it live on TV). Well, there's an update about him:Bill Ackman saying he's effectively 100% longHe says that around the 2 minute mark.
Of course, we shouldn't just believe what he says. After all he is a hedge fund manager and wants to make money. But we have to assume that he's long at a significant percentage - it doesn't even make sense to get rid of positions like Hilton when they haven't even recovered yet.
Then again, there are sources to get a peek into the positions of hedge funds, let's take Hedgopia.We see: Hedge funds are starting to go long on the 10 year bond. They are very short the 30 year bond. They are very long the Euro, very short on VIX futures and short on the Dollar.

Endgame

This is the perfect setup for a market meltdown. If hedge funds are really positioned like Ackman and Hedgopia describes, the situation could unwind after a liquidity event:The Fed increases QE to bring down the 30 year yield because the economy isn't recovering yet. We've already seen the correlation of QE and USD and QE and bond prices.That causes a giant short squeeze of hedge funds who are very short the 30 year bond. They need to cover their short positions. But Ackman said they're basically 100% long the stock market and nothing else. So what do they do? They need to sell stocks. Quickly. And what happens when there is a rapid sell-off in stocks? People start to hedge via put options. The VIX rises. But wait, hedge funds are short VIX futures, long Euro and short DXY. To cover their short positions on VIX futures, they need to go long there. VIX continues to go up and the prices of options go suborbital (as far as I can see).Also they need to get rid of Euro futures and cover their short DXY positions. That causes the USD to go up even more.
And the Fed will sit there and do their things again: more QE, infinity QE^2, dollar swap lines, repo operations, TARP and whatever. The Fed will be helpless against the forces of the market and have to watch the stock market burn down and they won't even realize that they created the circumstances for it to happen - by their programs to "help the economy" and their talking on TV. Do you remember JPow on 60minutes talking about how they flooded the world with dollars and print it digitally? He wanted us poor people to believe that the Fed is causing hyperinflation and we should take on debt and invest into the stock market. After all, the Fed has it covered.
But the Fed hasn't got it covered. And Powell knows it. That's why he's being a bear in the FOMC statements. He knows what's going on. But he can't do anything about it except what's apparently proven to be correct - QE, QE and more QE.

A final note about "stock market is not the economy"

It's true. The stock market doesn't reflect the current state of the economy. The current economy is in complete shambles.
But a wise man told me that the stock market is the reflection of the first and second derivatives of the economy. That means: velocity and acceleration of the economy. In retrospect this makes sense.
The economy was basically halted all around the world in March. Of course it's easy to have an insane acceleration of the economy when the economy is at 0 and the stock market reflected that. The peak of that accelerating economy ("max velocity" if you want to look at it like that) was in the beginning of June. All countries were reopening, vaccine hopes, JPow injecting confidence into the markets. Since then, SPY is stagnant, IWM/RUT, which is probably the most accurate reflection of the actual economy, has slightly gone down and people have bid up tech stocks in absolute panic mode.
Even JPow admitted it. The economic recovery has slowed down and if we look at economic data, the recovery has already stopped completely. The economy is rolling over as we can see in the continued high initial unemployment claims. Another fact to factor into the stock market.

TLDR and positions or ban?

TLDR: global economy bad and dollar shortage. economy not recovering, JPow back to doing QE Infinity. QE Infinity will cause the final squeeze in both the bond and stock market and will force the unwinding of the whole system.
Positions: idk. I'll throw in TLT 190c 12/18, SPY 220p 12/18, UUP 26c 12/18.That UUP call had 12.5k volume on Friday 7/31 btw.

Edit about positions and hedge funds

My current positions. You can laugh at my ZEN calls I completely failed with those.I personally will be entering one of the positions mentioned in the end - or similar ones. My personal opinion is that the SPY puts are the weakest try because you have to pay a lot of premium.
Also I forgot talking about why hedge funds are shorting the 30 year bond. Someone asked me in the comments and here's my reply:
"If you look at treasury yields and stock prices they're pretty much positively correlated. Yields go up, then stocks go up. Yields go down (like in March), then stocks go down.
What hedge funds are doing is extremely risky but then again, "hedge funds" is just a name and the hedgies are known for doing extremely risky stuff. They're shorting the 30 year bond because they needs 30y yields to go UP to validate their long positions in the equity market. 30y yields going up means that people are welcoming risk again, taking on debt, spending in the economy.
Milton Friedman labeled this the "interest rate fallacy". People usually think that low interest rates mean "easy money" but it's the opposite. Low interest rates mean that money is really tight and hard to get. Rising interest rates on the other hand signal an economic recovery, an increase in economic activity.
So hedge funds try to fight the Fed - the Fed is buying the 30 year bonds! - to try to validate their stock market positions. They also short VIX futures to do the same thing. Equity bulls don't want to see VIX higher than 15. They're also short the dollar because it would also validate their position: if the economic recovery happens and the global US dollar cycle gets restored then it will be easy to get dollars and the USD will continue to go down.
Then again, they're also fighting against the Fed in this situation because QE and the USD are correlated in my opinion.
Another Redditor told me that people who shorted Japanese government bonds completely blew up because the Japanese central bank bought the bonds and the "widow maker trade" was born:https://www.investopedia.com/terms/w/widow-maker.asp"

Edit #2

Since I've mentioned him a lot in the comments, I recommend you check out Steven van Metre's YouTube channel. Especially the bottom passages of my post are based on the knowledge I received from watching his videos. Even if didn't agree with him on the fundamental issues (there are some things like Gold which I view differently than him) I took it as an inspiration to dig deeper. I think he's a great person and even if you're bullish on stocks you can learn something from Steven!

submitted by 1terrortoast to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

What will undoubtedly happen from a macroeconomic (big picture) perspective... idiots

OKAY. So demand has been reduced dramatically around the world, our $21 trillion GDP has basically been paused for 2 months, so to keep it afloat (rough math), the government had to add $3.5 trillion to keep the economy running somewhat smoothly. That's a lot of printing, you idiots probably expect inflation. Wrong, step away from the US and look at what other countries are doing, the ECB (European Central Bank) and BOJ (Bank of Japan) are having to print trillions of dollars worth of EURO and YEN to keep their economies going, along with every other country getting pounded. Not only that, but since the US dollar makes up 70% of global transactions, in liquidity terms, trillions worth of euro and yen is MUCH MUCH more than any amount Jpow feels like printing, there's no way our printing could offset what the rest of the world is doing, so inflation isn't coming. If you want proof, just look at the euro/usd (going lower) and literally ANY emerging market currency is getting absolutely clapped vs the dollar.

Furthermore, not only is US corporate debt at an all time high, but emerging markets, the eurozone, and asia has borrowed more dollars than ever before at any point in history, basically everyone around the world's debt is denominated in US DOLLARS. So what's about to happen? It's already happening, demand for US dollars is going up because everyone around the world wants to borrow more to offset cash flow concerns and pay off existing debts, which will cause the dollar to increase in value. What happens when the whole world has debt in dollars and the dollar goes up in value? DEBT BECOMES MORE EXPENSIVE. This is DEFLATION, and in particular and even more terrifying DEBT DEFLATION, a phrase that would make Jpow absolutely shit himself (and he knows its coming). This has already started before the whole beervirus nonsense, look at Venezuela and Zimbabwe, they had too much dollar debt, no one wanted to lend to them anymore and whoops, their currency is worthless now. It's going to be like a game of musical chairs for people trying to get access to dollars, starting with emerging markets and eventually moving into the more developed economies. The result: massive corporate bankruptcies, countries defaulting on debt (devaluing their currencies) and eventually a deleveraging of massive proportions. This WILL occur and no amount of printing can stop it, it's already too far gone.

It doesn't matter what the stock market does, other markets around the world will be fucked, honestly it might cause the market to go up because of all the money fleeing other countries trying to find a safe place to live. Here are the plays assholes. TLT will go up because no matter what Jpow says, he doesn't control the fed funds rate, the market does, and US treasury bond yields have already priced in bonds going negative. CPI shows that we may see up to -3% inflation (3% deflation), meaning at .25% fed funds rate, the REAL rate is 3.25%, that is the worst thing possible during a deleveraging because it makes it harder to stimulate the economy, the fed has no choice, rates MUST go lower. Rates go lower, bond prices go up, TLT 12/18 $205c. Remember how I said scared foreign money will want to find a nice safe place to go when we go into the biggest debt crisis the world has seen in over 300 years? GLD 12/18 $240c. Finally, the dollar will rise in value as well so UUP 12/18 $28c.

As far the actual market, we hit a high of SPY 339.08 in February, fell to a low of 218.26 by mid March, and have since then retraced EXACTLY to the 61.8% Fibonacci retracement level at 290, and started to bounce lower from there. I'm no technical analyst, but I do know history. During the greatest crashes in stock market history, 1929, 2001, 2008, the Nikkei in 1989 (Japan) this exact same thing happened, market got scared and fell to lows, then smoked that good hopium for a few weeks or month to retrace between 50% and 61.8% back to previews highs, then absolutely fell off a cliff. If you don't believe me, go look at the charts. Now, I'm personally not going to be betting on the US market falling because of the fact that its just straight up not reflecting reality and there are much better ways to trade on what's occurring (see trades above), but I PROMISE, that we will not be seeing new highs at any point any time soon.

TLDR; The world is going to shit due to the dollars over-dominance of the world market, we will soon see the worst deleveraging in human history, and may very well have to come up with a new fiat money system (probably not bitcoin, but it wouldn't hurt to have some). TLT 12/18 $205c, GLD 12/18 $240c, and UUP 12/18 $28c. If you wanna be an autist and buy weeklys, I can't help you, but I basically just gave you the next big short, so you're welcome.

DISCLAIMER: I didn't say what price to buy at for a reason, timing is extremely important for trades like this, so don't FOMO in and overpay, you will get clapped.
submitted by Rezuwrecked_ to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Neither Modern nor Monetary

(dated April 2019)
Northern Trust
submitted by Altruistic_Camel to econmonitor [link] [comments]

Is QE Inflationary?

CIBC
submitted by Altruistic_Camel to econmonitor [link] [comments]

Jones doesn't understand the economy or "some supplementary remarks regarding currency"

So, in today's episode Jones had this to say regarding currency:

Whoever ends up with the EU over inflating it's currency, the Communist Chinese overinflating their currency, they're all doing it. Whoever ends up with the dominant global currency, who can flood the world with their currency, who can be on top when it all comes down, will be in charge like after WW2 and Brettonwoods for another 70-80 years.
You can say it's a corrupt system, you can say it's fiat, is getting rid of our hegemonic power now, to give it to the ChiComs and themselves completly. They're done with us, like Darth Sidious with Count Doku.
Just a disclaimer: i have received no formal education in macro economics, so feel free to point out any mistake I have made here.
Now, if I were to try to form a coherent idea from this babbling, Alex has the following ideas about currency.
  1. Economic dominance is based on a currency being "dominant".
  2. Inflation helps a currency being "dominant".
  3. Fiat is corrupt and is currently working to weaken the US-Dollar's dominance.
Now let me ask you the following question: What exactly is a dominant currency? A currency used in the largest market? The currency with the most value compared to highest exchange rate? The currency with the least inflation? The currency that is most commonly used as a financial reserve? A currency has numerous qualities one might value, so there isn't really a clear answer what the best currency is. But let us assume it's the last one. Jones gives us the idea that the currency with the most inflation is going to be dominant. If that were the case, the Zimbabwe dollar with a inflation of 737% as of last month would likely be the dominant global currency, compared to the measly Chinese inflation of 3%.
So unless the globalists use their nefarious influence to false flag china, while hiding the secret financial dominance of Zimbabwe, just having high inflation alone isn't going to make a currency dominant. So what will? If people can use multiple currencies, why would they choose any particular one? A currency serves to fundamental purposes - as a medium of exchange and as a storage unit of value. Or in plain english, you want to buy things with one and store value with it. A inflation rate makes a currency less useful at the latter, since the value of your saved money diminishes over time, to the point that a single passed day might reduce your savings considerably. In case of hyperinflation, you would loose virtually all of that value if you kept it for an extended period of time. But far more important for currencies is the first quality, the ability to actually buy things with a currency.
So why is the US dollar so predominantly used in international finances? In order to explain that, we must consider the economic history of the 1940s. During the early 1940s, substantial amounts of industry were destroyed in WW2. Trough the combination of bombing and invading armies, the majority of Europe and the industrial centers of Asia lay in ruin. The major economic powers, like Germany, Japan, the Soviets and France had substantially weakened economic bases with one exception - The USA, which was in the unique position of not even experiencing bombings of industrial centers. In addition, the USA had sold massive quantities of war material to the UK, France prior to the lend-lease act, which was to be paid. This cemented an era of economic dominance for the USA, since the previously much more dominant economic power houses lost not only much of their industry, but also their colonial possessions in the following decades. Even the eastern block had a need for "hard cash", since various technological embargo made it the only way to obtain valuable technology like electronics. The dominance of the US dollar was the result of the dominance of US manufacturing, not of anything pertaining to the dollar itself.
But let us further address the question of Fiat currency. Simply put, fiat currency simply refers to a given currency being exchangeable for a rare metal, in most cases either gold or silver. The government bought amounts of gold and silver from companies and stored it. This does has little more influence on the economy than restricting the possible amount of inflation via restricting the amount of money that can be printed. This ins't really relevant for the more stable economies, given that inflation is only at a couple percent per year. Gold is, despite what certain libertarians claim, not an ideal storage unit for value given that few people accept pieces of gold as payment, so you would need to sell it for money. The gold price fluctuates, to the point that you might even lose more value stored in gold than via inflation. Bringing back the gold standard would only accomplish one thing - the government would have to buy up amounts of gold, thereby increasing demand and profit for gold sellers. For the average person, nothing would change.
Now, this a rather long post detailing the issues with a few off the cuff remarks, but this demonstrates the fundamental issue with Alex - he gives his opinion, regardless of how unfounded it is and presents himself as an expert. While he claims to be the researcher extraordinaire, his actual expertise is based on little more than that one blog post he read a while back. He remains in ignorant on so many subjects and encourages the same in others by confirming their preconceptions. Any argumentation, no matter how terrible,would be better than what he currently offers, since it would at least not actively worsen the viewers deductive skills.
submitted by Random_Rationalist to KnowledgeFight [link] [comments]

200 achievements of Modi Govt

  1. Fragile five to Fastest growing economy - India
  2. 11th largest to the 5th largest economy - India
  3. Share of world GDP from 2.43% in 2014 to 3.08% in 2018
  4. Average GDP 7.3% against 6.7% in previous regime
  5. Forex reserves from 300 bn USD in 2014 to 420 bn USD in 2018
  6. Doubling of FDI inflow from 36 bn USD in 2014 to 66 billion USD in 2018
  7. Inflation less than 2.3 % (Nov 18) against 10.1% in 2014
  8. Growth of sensex from 24,121.74 in 2014 to 36,395.03 on 12 Feb 19 (50.88%)
  9. Fiscal deficit under control
  10. Per capita income increased by 45% from Rs 86,647 in 2014 to Rs 1,25,397
  11. IT exemption from 2 lakh in 2014 to 5 lakh (effectively 9.85 lakh with home loan)
  12. Restaurant bills tax reduced from 18% in 2014 to 5%
  13. Transaction charges through card down from 1% to 0%, domestic money transfer fee down from Rs 5 in 2014 to zero
  14. Financial inclusion (32 crore bank accounts with 260 billion worth deposits). Almost 100% coverage from earlier 50%
  15. DBT (savings of 83000 crores @ 15000 crore annually), No of govt schemes DBT applied to increased from 34 in 2014 to 433, 2.7 lakh fake mid-day meal students, 3.3 crore fake LPG connections, 87 lakh fake MNREGA job cards, 3 crore fake ration cards eliminated
  16. Zero IT for businesses with turnover upto 60 lakhs
  17. GST exemplifying cooperative federalism, rates of 83 items down from pre-GST rates, out of 1211 items only 35 items in above 18% slab, 39% reduction of cost of basic household items. Average 1 lk crore monthly revenue through GST collection. Exempted for business upto 40 lk
  18. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, constitution of NCLT, 3 lakh crores of NPAs recovered, 66 cases resolved, 260 cases liquidated, resolution of stressed assets, 2100 companies pay back 83000 crore to banks settling their pending loan repayments
  19. 75 billion $ or Yen to Rupee exchange agreement with Japan
  20. 1 lakh shell companies deregistered, FCRA licenses of 4800 NGOs cancelled
  21. Fugitive Economic Offenders Bill, properties of economic fugitives seized and auctioned
  22. 1.9 lakh km of rural roads. Rural road connectivity at 91% from 55%
  23. 36 new airports, from 65 in 7 decades to 106, all states now in air connectivity map
  24. Effective international diplomacy following 59 visits to nations, 38 single, 10 double, 3 triple and 2 quadruple visits by PM.(Seen during Airstrikes,No Country opposed India)
  25. Benami Act for action against Money Laundering
  26. Rural sanitation coverage 95 % up from 39% (8.8 crore toilets)
  27. Solar energy capacity increased 8 fold from 2.63 GW to 22 GW, 19. 8.5 GW of biogas grid installed.
  28. Ganga waterway transportation, usage by shipping giant Maersk, cost of transportation reduced from 10/ton (road) / Rs 6/ton (rail) to Re 1/ton
  29. More than 2.4 crore households lit up, rural electricity coverage to households up from 70 to 95%, only 19836 homes remain (in Chhatisgarh) out of 2,48,09,235
  30. Electricity accessibility rank jump from 99 in 2014 to 26 in 2019
  31. 7 crore new gas connections to 3.5 crore households u/69000 conections per day, coverage 90% from 55%, 82% return for refill, 42% beneficiaries Dalits
  32. 14.4 crore mudra loans worth Rs 7 lakh crore disbursed
  33. 18000 remote villages connected with electricity
  34. 2.92 lakh km of optical fibre laid, 0.02% to 50% gram Panchayat connectivity
  35. Swachh bharat mission has saved, according to WHO, 3 lakh lives and will save 1.5 lakh lives per year.
  36. IT filers increase from 3.79 crore to 6.08 crore, enterprises registered for indirect tax up from 64 lk to 118 lakh
  37. Entry of India in global regimes Missile Technology Control regime (MTCR), WA (Wassenaar Arrangement) and Australia Group
  38. 17 crore soil health cards
  39. 1.5 crore houses built, 91.37 crore in rural areas and 13.5 lakh in urban areas against 25 lakh houses built between 2010-2014. House for all target year is 2022.
  40. 1,78,346 houses built in NE over existing 2875 houses built till 2014
  41. Home loan interest rate down from 10.3 % in 2014 to 8.4% in 2018, annual savings of Rs 47,160 for 30 lakhs over 30 years, no GST on affordable housing, 5% on remaining
  42. Trading agreement in rupee with Iran and UAE
  43. Common service centres up from 84k to 3 Lakh
  44. OROP implemented after 43 years, 35000 crores disbursed to 8 crore veterans
  45. India's vaccination programme Indradhanush amongst 12 best practices of world
  46. 5035 Jan Aushadhi and - 1054 medicines under price control (60-90% discounts).
  47. More than 150 Amrit stores, reduction of cost of cromium cobalt Knee implant from 1.58-2.5 lakh to 54,720 and high flex implant from Rs181728 to 56490 (69%), 85% reduction in cardiac stent price to Rs 28000
  48. 87% reduction in 400 cancer drugs
  49. Rate of Interest on higher education loans dropped from 14.75 in 2013 to 10.88% in 2019, savings of 1.18 lakh on 10 lakh loan over tenure of 60 months, Rs 2000 savings on EMI
  50. Data revolution: Cost of 1 GB $0.26 in India against $12.37 in US, $6.66 in UK and $75.2 in Zimbabwe. Unlimited mobile+ 45 Gb data = Rs 150 against Rs 1000 in 2013; annual savings of 10,200
  51. Katra rail line work completed after 16 years
  52. Dhola Sadiya bridge work completed after 16 years
  53. Sardar Sarovar Dam work completed after 15 years
  54. Aadhaar act
  55. Pakyong airport completed after 10 years
  56. Chennai Nashri Tunnel after 10 years
  57. Assam NRC after 40 years
  58. National War Memorial after 50 years
  59. NE cpas after 60 years
  60. Kollam bypass after 43 years
  61. Indo-Bangladesh enclaves after 42 years
  62. Bansagar canal project after 40 years
  63. Bogibeel bridge after 23 years
  64. Western peri expressway after 15 years
  65. Kota Chambal bridge after 11 years
  66. Maibang-Lumding Stretch completed
  67. Delhi Meerut Expressway completed
  68. Ganga Expressway project (world's longest) underway
  69. Metros in Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Jaipur, Lucknow, Washermenpet
  70. All umanned level crossings eliminated
  71. Ayushman Bharat: annual 5 lakh health care to every family, 15.05 lakh hospital admissions for secondary/ tertiary treatment, 2.4 crore e-cards generated as on 10 Mar 19 in 170 days. Target 50 crore people.
  72. 59minutes loan portal: 92,000 loan applications of MSME amounting to 30,000 crores approved, 6000 crores sanctioned till Nov 18
  73. 87% of farming house (owning land of 2 hctrs) or 12 cr ppl to get kisaan sammaan nidhi of Rs 6000 pr year. Rs 5215 cr transferred directly to 2.6 crore farmers in 37 days (for households with holding less than 0.01 hectares incm per month so far was Rs 8136 agnst exp of 6594
  74. 1.5 million electric rickshaws
  75. Procurement of 36 Rafale on Government to Government Basis avoiding middlemen
  76. 05 billion$ S 400 Triumf air defence missile system deal with Russia
  77. 145 M777 howitzer deal
  78. 22 Apache AH 64E multi-role combat helos
  79. 200 KA-226T helicopters
  80. 56 EADS CASA C-295 transport aircraft
  81. 15 CH 47 Chinook tactical transport helicopters
  82. 2.3 lakh Bullet proof jackets
  83. 1.6 lakh Bullet-proof helmets
  84. 777 mn USD Barak 8 LRSAM contract
  85. 5 bn USD S-400 air defence systems
  86. 10 Heron TP armed drones
  87. 4 additional P8I MR aircraft
  88. 40 units of Laser sensor border fence installed
  89. 72,400 Sig Sauer Assault rifles
  90. 100 self-propelled K9 Vajra howitzers
  91. 700000 AK-103 Kalashnikov assault rifles indigenous facility
  92. Surgical strikes in Myanmar, across LoC and in Pakistan. Only Country to bomb a Nuclear Powered Country
  93. 240 million visitors at Kumbh Mela 2019, cost 4236 crores @ Rs 177 per tourist, revenue 1.2 Lakh crores
  94. 833 teraflop supercomputer Param Shivay by IIT BHU at Rs 32.5 crores
  95. Divisional status to Ladakh
  96. 470 bed ESIC hospital in Ennore
  97. 100 bed ESIC hospital in Tiruppur
  98. Namami Gange - Ganga is 30% cleaner, 83 out of 97 ganga towns and 4456 villages achieved ODF status, 08 out of 16 drains emptying 16 crore l sewage into Ganga tapped. Target date Mar 2020
  99. 5,45,122 ODF villages, 598 ODF districts, 27 ODF states/ villages
  100. RERA implementation
  101. Udaan scheme - flight cost down from Rs 5000/1000 km in 2013 to 3400/1000 km in 2018, 34 airports operationalised, small towns connected, all states on aerial
  102. Preventive conservation of 39275570 folios, curative conservation of 3656863 filios, digitisation of 2.83 lakh manuscripts consisting of 2.93 crore pages
  103. India is now world's largest 2-wheeler manufacturer, 2nd largest smartphone manufacturer (94% of mobiles sold now made in India), 4th largest automaker, 2nd largest steel producer
  104. 5100 m Mandvi Bridge in Goa in 3.5 years
  105. Ease of doing Business ranking jump from 134 in 2014 to 77 in 2019
  106. Therubali - Singapur Bridge No 588
  107. Restoration of Asurgarh Fort, Kalahandi
  108. GeM portal with 731431 product categories, 180,862 registered sellers and 32114 govt buyers
  109. 10% EWS reservation
  110. 40% of ongoing 700 NH projects completed, adding 40,039 km between 2014-18 against 91,287 km between 1947-2014
  111. Highway construction rate jumped from 12 km/day in 2014 to 27 km/day in 2019
  112. 101 terrorists and 11 offenders extradited
  113. 90,000 ex-partite Indians evacuated
  114. Chabahar port, Sittwe port and Duqm port
  115. Military installation in Seychelles
  116. International logistics agreements with US, France and Singapore
  117. Work underway on 25 MLD ZLD Common Effluent Treatment Plant at Gujarat Eco Textile Park and will save 25 million litres of water per day
  118. Beautification of 65 railway stations, all stations fitted with LED lights, wi-fi, multi-brand food centres, kiosks, executive lounges, lifts (445 from 97 in 2014), escalators (603 from 199 in 2014), travellators and ramps
  119. Record number of foot over bridges built
  120. 871 new train services
  121. 180 new rail lines
  122. Dedicated railway freight corridor - 2 sections completed
  123. 100% electrification of railways underway, first solar powered railway station (Guwahati). First solar powered train (world's second), savings of Rs 40 Lakhs and 90,000 ltrs diesel per year
  124. Make in India semi-high-speed trains - Tejas, Gatiman and Vande Bharat
  125. Humsafar and Antodaya trains, Deen Dayalu and Anubhuti coaches, UDAY double decker, glass dome Vistadome coaches
  126. Project Swarn and Project Utkrisht to upgrade Rajdhani/Shatabdi and Mail/Express respectively
  127. Largest coach production in world at ICF, Chennai
  128. No more human extreta on railway tracks. Installation of 1.37 lakh out of 2.5 lakh completed in Jun 18.
  129. 400 wi-fi railway stations (Aug 18)
  130. 80% reduction in rail accidents
  131. 10 high speed rail corridors underway, target date 2025-26
  132. Export of world class customised coaches from MCF, Rae Bareli
  133. LIC and Air India register profit
  134. 2300 km rail tracks constructed, speed jumped from 4.1 km/day in 2014 to 6.53 km/day in 2018
  135. Neem coating of urea
  136. Gokul mission - record 160 million ton milk production
  137. Online availability of CBSE and NCERT books
  138. 10 crore LED bulbs distributed, 5000 crore savings
  139. Investment in urban infrastructure jumped from 157703 crores to 795500 crores
  140. Statue of Unity to commemorate Iron Man of India
  141. Rs 2509 crore sales in Khadi
  142. 482.36 million digital transactions worth Rs 74,978 crores in Oct 2018 against 0.3 million transactions worth Rs 90 crores in Nov 2016
  143. 30% increase in ATMs, 208% increase of PoS machines from 10.81 lakh in May 14 to 33.32 lakh in Aug 18, 111% increase in credit cards from 1.94 crore in May 14 to 4.10 crore in Aug 18, 144% increase in debit cards from 40.17 crore to 98.02 crore
  144. Ease of Doing Business Index 142 (2014) to 100 (2018)
  145. Ease of getting electricity index 99 (2014) to 26 (2018)
  146. UN's e-govt index 118 (2014) to 97(2018)
  147. Globalisation index 112 to 107 (2018)
  148. Innovation index 76 to 60 (2018)
  149. Competitiveness index 71 to 39
  150. Logistics performance index 54 to 35
  151. Global peace index 141 to 137
  152. DBR ranking 100 to 77
  153. India ranks 3rd in global start up ecosystem
  154. 06 crore jobs in MSME sector based on CII data
  155. 448 million formal jobs based on EPFO, NPS and PPF data
  156. 10 crore jobs in entrepreneurship via mudra and other schemes
  157. 80% increase in tax payers, 51.3 % increase in gross tax revenue
  158. Black Money report card - Voluntary income declaration scheme (Rs 65250 crore), IT search and survey operations (35,460 crore), Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana(5000 crore), Benami transactions Act (4300 crore), Black Money and Imposition of Tax Act (4100 crore)
160 Rs 6000 financial assiatence for pregnant women
161/1 . Sagarmala: port capacity increase from 8 to 14.7 lakh ton, cargo up from 89 to 116 MMT 8 new national waterways including ganga waterway NW-1 and Brahmaputra waterway NW-2.
161/2. domestic cruise service between Mumbai and Goa, ro-ro services on Ghoga-Dahej reducing travel distance from 294 to 31 km
161/3. New international cruise terminals at Chennai and Goa, railway line between Haridaspur and Paradip underway, LNG import terminal at Kamarajar port, Oil berth ai Jawahar Dweep,Coal berth at Mangalore port
161/4 . deep draft Iron ore berth at Paradip berth, JNPT SEZ, Kandla and Paradip smart industrial port city, largest dry dock and international ship repair facility at CSL, modernisation of 17 fishing harbours
  1. 800 km Delhi-Mumbai Expressway underway
  2. Replacement of bio-toilets with upgraded vacuum bio toilets in trains underway. Order for 500 placed on experimental basis.
  3. No terror strikes in hinterland
  4. 103 new KVs
  5. 62 new Navodaya Vidyalayas
  6. 6 new IITs against 16 in previous 57 years
  7. 6 new IIMs against 13 in previous 57 years
  8. 7 IIITs against 7 in previous 57 years
  9. 02 new IISER
  10. 12 new AIIMS against 7 in previous 57 years.
  11. 141 new universities against 30 in previous 57 years
  12. 01 new NIT
  13. Life Insurances @ Rs 12 annual and @ Rs 12 monthly premiums
  14. Atal Pension Yojana
  15. Pension to 42 crore people of unorganised sector
  16. Ambedkar memorial
  17. BHIM application for digital payments
  18. Khelo India Initiative for tracking of athletes' development, Rs 5 lk per annum scholarship for 1000 budding athletes per year for eight years each; monthly Rs 50000 out-of -pocket exptr, 2000 PETs, salary cap of coaches doubled from Rs 1-2 lk per month, target 15 yrs
  19. Special Task Force for Olympics
  20. RERA Act
  21. Bullet train maiden project
182/1. Rs 6.92 lakh crore Bharatmala project, 44 economic corridors with 9000 km road, 2000 km port connectivity, 9000km roads to connect district HQs with NH,
182/2. 2000 km road with Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar, opening up of 185 choke points, road development to char dham, 12 greenfield expressways spanning 1900 km
  1. 36 murtis retrieved and brought back to India in 2014-2019 under India Pride Project against 02 between 2000-2013, 02 in 90s, 03 in 80s, 01 in 70s and nil in 50s and 60s
  2. Unemployment rate 3.8% against 13.8 % in 2013
  3. India is a less-cash society now
  4. Develpment of Trincomalee and Columbo port while checkmating China's Hambantota by taking operations of near by (15 km away) Mattala Rajapaksha International Airport
  5. Plugging the 'double taxation avoidance' black money loophole through a new tax agreement with Mauritius
  6. Deal with Switzerland for automatic tax data sharing from 01 Jan 2019
189/1 Varanasi - Varanasi ring road phase 1 completed, phase 2 underway, inland waterways terminal, Babatpur airport highway, 140 MLD Dinaput STP, facelift to railway station, big cow shelter for stray cattle, BPO centre, piped gas project, Varanasi-Balia rail project,
189/2. Vande Bharat Express, Kashi Vishwanath temple - Ganga Ghat corridor project, renovation of all bathings ghats, LED illuminations of ghats and major roads, underground electricity cabling,
189/3. new sewage plants, 02 cancer treatment facilities, 65th to 29th rank in swachhata sarvekshan (2016), 90% ODF district.
  1. Creation of 100 Smart cities, 100 crore per year per city for 05 years, 500 acres for retrofitting, 50 acres for redevelopment, 250 acres for green field projects, 10% of energy from renewable resources, 80% of green building construction, special purpose vehicles.
191/1 Development of 500 AMRUT cities underway, urbanization project of rejuvenation and transformation which includes beach front development, prevention of beach erosion, improvement of water supply, replacement of pipelines,
191/2. New sewerage connections, greenery and open spaces, digital and smart facilities, e-governance, LED streetlights, public transport, storm water drainage projects in a phased manner, Target date 2022
  1. Increase in Child Sex Ratio (CSR) in 104 BBBP (Beti Bachao Beti Padhao) districts, anti-natal care registration in 119 districts and institutional deliveries in 146 out of total 640 districts as in Mar 18. CSR of Haryana increased from 871 to 914.
  2. International Yoga Day
  3. Aspirational Districts Programme: 115 'backward' districts placed under 'prabharis' and for competitive development on the basis of 49 performance indicators, target year 2022.
195/1. Make in India: 16.4 lakh crore investment committments, 1.5 lakh crore investment inquiries, 60 bn USD FDI, 26 sectors covered, 23 positions jump in World Bank's Doing Business Report (DBR), 32 places in WEF's Global Competitiveness Index (GCI),
195/2 19 places in Logistics Performance Index, 42 places in Ease of Doing Business index, schemes include Bharatmala, Sagarmala, dedicate freight corridors, industrial corridors, UDAN-RCS, Bharat Broadband Network, Digital India.
  1. 251 Passport Seva Kendras (PSKs) and Post Office Passport Seva kendras (POPSKs) against 77 till 2014, target of one PSK every 50 km across India.
  2. Unanimous election of Justice Dalveer Bhandari to ICJ forcing UK to pull out own nominee Christopher Greenwood, demonstrating India's clout in international arena.
  3. India Post Payments Bank: India's biggest banking outreach with 1.55 lakh post offices (2.5 times banking network) linked to IPPB system
  4. Philip Kotler award, Seoul Peace prize, Champion of the Earth Award, Grand Collar of the State of Palestine, Amir Abdulla Khan Award, King Abdulaziz Sash award, Amir Amanullah Khan award.
  5. 1900 gifts and memorabilia received by Modi auctioned and 11.7 crores added to Namami Gange fund, 1.4 c of Seoul Peace award also to Nammami Gange.
New Adds
  1. Removal of article 370 and thereby also 35a after several decades.
  2. Giving citizenship to persecuted minorities in Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan through passing of CAA.
  3. Trust for creation of Ram Mandir underway.
  4. Abolishment of Haj subsidy.
  5. Abolishment and criminalization of instant triple talak.
  6. Deal with Bodo community.
  7. Getting Maulana Masood Azhar listed as an UN designated terrorist.

Source - https://www.reddit.com/IndiaRWResources/comments/bgkus6/200_achievements_of_modi_govt/

List more achievements in the comment section and lets make the list bigger, a big thank you to our fallen kar sevak u/Alive_Firefighter
submitted by justchillar to Chodi [link] [comments]

Quantitative Easing, Helicopter Money and Inflation: A Risk for Canada?

Source: CIBC
Avery Shenfeld
Dated April 16th, 2020

Does QE Mean “Printing Money?”
Chart 1 - Financial Flows From $10 bn in Fiscal Stimulus and QE
Is that Inflationary?
Chart 2 - Core CPI Sees Little Response to Money Supply Swings
Loony Tunes
Chart 3 - Eurozone and Japan: No Sustained CPI Lift From QE
Chart 4 - C$ Weakened in Line With Broad USD Gains
So Why Bother?
submitted by AwesomeMathUse to econmonitor [link] [comments]

Just the Facts Pt. III: Debt & Deficit

Hello and welcome to the long-delayed Just the Facts Pt. III: Debt & Deficit. This is part of a series of posts designed to establish a baseline set of facts for all members of this sub to use when discussing controversial issues. The motivation behind these posts isn't to put forward any specific proposal or ideology; instead, they're based on my firm belief that no productive discussion can be had if people do not agree on the underlying facts. I will primarily focus on the US National Debt and Deficit, though the basic concepts mostly apply to any country. This post is formatted as a Q&A for easier browsing.
What is the National Debt?
The Balance has a useful explanation of what the debt is:
The national debt is the public and intragovernmental debt owed by the federal government. It’s also called sovereign debt, country debt, or government debt. It consists of two types of debt. The first is debt held by the public. The government owes this to buyers of its bonds. Those buyers are the country’s citizens, international investors, and foreign governments. The second type is intragovernmental debt. The federal government owes this to other government departments. It often funds government and citizens’ pensions. An example is the U.S. Social Security retirement account.
The federal government adds to the debt whenever it spends more than it receives in tax revenue. Each year's budget deficit gets added to the debt. Each budget surplus gets subtracted.
https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-the-national-debt-4031393
It is important to understand that the national debt is not the same as debt an individual incurs when taking a loan. As mentioned in the above definition, national debt is normally issued in Bonds (also Treasury Bills and Notes, which work in a similar way but have different times to mature). These are not loans to be paid back in increments; they are investment vehicles provided by the Government, not the entities purchasing the debt. Bonds, Bills, and Notes are paid back in a lump sum, usually with a pre-arranged amount of interest, when they "mature" or reach their due date. However, US debt is so desirable as a safe place to store money that matured bonds are usually "rolled over" by their owners, who simply use the payout to re-buy more bonds.
Why do people, organizations and countries buy our debt?
US Debt has been called the most successful investment vehicle in human history. The primary reason for this is how safe it is: the United States has never defaulted on its debt, and the country offers clear and consistent financial terms regarding interest and time to mature. Individuals usually buy Treasury Bonds as a long-term investment or to give as a gift. Investment firms and governmental organizations invest in them to provide stability to their portfolios and guard against volatility in the financial markets. Foreign nations invest for much the same reason, and also as a tool to help control the value of their currency (more on this when we discuss China.)
Buying or Selling US Debt does not mean either party was short on cash -- it's often the opposite situation. The Social Security Fund, for example, buys Treasury Bonds when it has surplus funds and wants a safe place to store them.
https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/040115/reasons-why-china-buys-us-treasury-bonds.asp
What is the Deficit?
The deficit is the amount being added to the debt in a single length of time, usually calculated in Quarters or Years. If the country is running a deficit, the debt gets bigger. Deficits fluctuate and are often run purposefully as part of overarching financial policy. It is also possible to manipulate how large the deficit appears by including or excluding certain data when calculating it. An example of this is when the US Government calculates Social Security Fund surpluses as income and subtracts them from the larger deficit despite Social Security being funded separately from the wider government.
https://www.thebalance.com/current-u-s-federal-budget-deficit-3305783
How big are the Debt and Deficit?
The current US National Debt is over $23 Trillion dollars, but it is useful to break down that number. Of the $23tn, about $17tn is owned by the public, and $6tn is owned by intragovernmental organizations like the Social Security Fund. As mentioned above, the government owes itself debt because organizations like the Social Security Fund buy treasury bonds as a safe investment. The "public" debt includes debt owned by foreign nations and individuals, which combined hold about a third of that category.
The current US Deficit is about $1.10tn. As seen in the chart linked below, $1.10tn is a relatively large deficit, though not the largest ever. It is, however, unusual to have such a large and increasing deficit while the economy is expanding.
http://theweeklycommentary.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Federal-Budget-Deficit-Graph-1-1024x792.png
What is the debt ceiling?
The debt ceiling is a limit that Congress imposes on how much debt the federal government can carry at any given time. When the ceiling is reached, the U.S. Treasury Department cannot issue any more Treasury bills, bonds, or notes. It can only pay bills as it receives tax revenues. If the revenue isn't enough, the Treasury Secretary must choose between paying federal employee salaries, Social Security benefits, or the interest on the national debt.
https://www.thebalance.com/u-s-debt-ceiling-why-it-matters-past-crises-3305868
Are all debts and deficits bad?
The simple answer is no. A longer answer is that both debt and deficits can be used to help the economy. With debt, the key figure to analyze is usually not its total size -- interest rates are more important. The US Government is often able to issue Bonds, Bills, and Notes at interest rates below the dollar's inflation rate. At the time of writing, US Treasury Bonds with a 10-year term are offering 1.56% interest, while the dollar is expected to inflate by about 1.9% in 2020. If the dollar sees similar inflation for the rest of the 10-year term, the Government will have effectively made money by selling debt. In addition, the money gained from selling debt can be invested, earning interest or being spent in ways that grow or strengthen the economy. It is important to note, however, that inflation is hard to predict, and that 20, 30+ year bonds issued in past decades are currently paying out higher interest than the inflation rate.
The interest:inflation ratio is especially important to remember when considering arguments that posit that interest payments are "wasted" money. Usually, these arguments are made by solely referencing the size of the interest payments without considering those payments in context with inflation. They also posit that there is a limit to how much the government can spend at once -- not unreasonable when you consider the debt ceiling, but that can be raised at will.
A deficit associated with selling debt would be bad if the deficit was needed to pay for current necessities that we didn't have enough income for, as a personal loan might be used for. This would be a sign of excessive spending, weakness in the economy, or financial mismanagement. On the other hand, if you look at the deficit as an investment in the current economy and a bet that the dollar will inflate faster than the interest rate on Treasury Bonds, it makes sense to run "investment" deficits. There is no direct relationship between the amount of debt issued and the interest or inflation rates, but there is a risk that issuing too much debt will undermine confidence in the dollar and lead to inflation. The real question on debt and deficit isn't if the size of it is a problem; it's whether the reasons behind it are.
https://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelfoste2017/11/08/federal-debt-is-reaching-20-trillion-and-i-dont-care/#2e73d72c32ba
https://www.pgpf.org/the-fiscal-and-economic-challenge/fiscal-and-economic-impact
Is our current amount of Debt/Deficit bad?
The key to answering this question is to look at three factors: how the debt and deficit are being used, the Supply & Demand balance of Treasury Bonds, and how debt influences consumer confidence. The former is unfortunately too big an issue for me to fully examine here, and there are arguments on both sides. Some say the debt and deficit are being used unproductively to fund military expenditures, tax cuts, and entitlements that won't see a return on their investment. Others say those expenses are built-in, and the debt is being used to invest in infrastructure, research, and investment programs that see substantial returns. It is difficult to call one side correct when the National Debt is not divided up to fund specific programs; it's a general fund that the government then does thousands of different things with in a convoluted mess.
Another use of debt worth mentioning is Keynesian deficit spending during or to prevent a recession. Keynesian economic theory posits that government spending can be used to support the economy during difficult times, and in order to do this the government must be able to incur debt and run deficits. If there is a limit to the amount of debt a government can issue in a short period of time without causing economic panic, then running high deficits in an expanding economy, as we are currently doing, may make the next recession worse. There are also concerns that Keynesian deficit spending can increase the risk of runaway inflation during times of economic crisis when inflation is already a concern. Keynesian economics is not universally accepted, but it is the most widely practiced school of economics in developed nations.
https://www.thebalance.com/keynesian-economics-theory-definition-4159776
Supply and Demand are thankfully easier to examine. One risk of the debt growing too large is that it is theoretically possible that there won't be enough interested buyers to fund future deficits, meaning that the debt can only stay the same or go down. That would drastically limit the financial flexibility of our government. There is also a risk that if debt-holders choose to divest, it will put inflationary pressure on the dollar, which will be seen as less valuable due to decreased demand for it in the form of Treasury Bonds. There is also risk in the possibility that Treasury Bonds will need to increase the interests rates they give in order to maintain demand. If this upward pressure on interest rates causes it to pass the inflation rate of the dollar, we will begin to lose money by selling debt. If that difference grows too large, interest payments on the debt will begin to eat away at our economy and reduce our ability to invest in growth. All that said, these risks are widely seen as far off due to the enormous demand that exists for US Treasury Bonds. The demand currently far exceeds the supply, and for every entity considering divesting there are several who would be happy to jump in and take their place.
The real "debt" problem is arguably the politics surrounding our debt and deficit and whether we are capable of finding political solutions which do not impede sound financial decision making. These political concerns were a major reason cited by S&P when they downgraded the US's credit rating in 2011 and were cited by Fitch when they issued a warning of a potential downgrade in 2018. Those political concerns tie-in with the last factor to consider: how the debt and deficit affect consumer confidence. There is no strict limit in dollars or debt:GDP ratio where debt changes from good to bad, productive to not. There is, however, a tipping point, unknown until reached, where debt shakes consumer confidence enough that people begin to lose faith in their currency as an effective financial instrument. This process has occurred in many failed economies - Zimbabwe, Venezuela, etc. - where the government begins piling on debt and inflation eats away at the populace's financial assets. Eventually, the problems can become so extreme that the entire economy collapses, hyperinflation makes bills worth less than the paper they're written on, and thousands or millions starve. There are arguments that this cannot happen to the US Dollar as it is the world's reserve currency, the backbone of the global financial system. There are counter-arguments that every nation thought this way until it happened to them.
For more in-depth analysis of the budget, I highly recommend reading papers hosted on the CRFB website: https://www.crfb.org/papers
https://www.forbes.com/sites/francescoppola/2018/04/17/everything-youve-been-told-about-government-debt-is-wrong/#140d9e6f314f
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-14428930
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-rating-fitch/fitch-reiterates-u-s-downgrade-warning-idUSKBN1EZ1BM
https://sites.krieger.jhu.edu/iae/files/2018/10/Routledge-Handbook-of-Major-Events-in-Economic-History-World-Hyperinflations-1.pdf
Who pays for the debt?
When things go well and Bonds are purchased at interest rates below inflation, the people who own the debt pay the government for the privilege of doing so. That may sound backwards, but remember that US Debt is easily one of the safest possible investments and guards against volatility. Bonds are not an investment people should look to make a profit in.
A moderate outcome is that the dollar inflates less than the interest on the debt. This can lead to losses if the funds from the Bonds issued aren't used productively, but generally any use will have some return on investment, so even moderate inflation:interest increases may not lead to "real" losses.
When things go poorly, however, the US public pays for the debt via taxes or inflation. Debt can only be reduced by the government somehow taking in more revenue than it spends. One way to accomplish this is to raise taxes. Another is to reduce spending. Thirdly, the government can increase the monetary supply by simply printing more money. Each of these has potential drawbacks.
Who owns the US National debt? Is it China?
The Social Security Fund is by far the largest holder of US National Debt at about $2.9tn, more than 10% of the total. About 29% of our debt is owned by foreign entities. Of those foreign entities, the largest single holder is Japan, and the vast majority of foreign-held debt is owned by our allies. Only about 5% of the National Debt, at time of writing, is held by China. China's share fluctuates between 3-8% based on both nations' economic policies. If you add the Social Security Fund and all pension and retirement funds in the US together, they amount to more than half the total debt.
https://www.thebalance.com/who-owns-the-u-s-national-debt-3306124
Can someone "call in" our debt or use it as leverage to hurt our economy?
No debt-holder can "call in" the debt at will. The only decision available to them is whether to repurchase debt when their current holdings mature or to cash out and divest. A debt-holder making the latter decision is only a major concern to the US if another buyer cannot be found, which is not a realistic threat in the near future.
What is MMT, and how does it relate to the Debt and Deficit?
MMT, Modern Monetary Theory, says that revenues and deficits are not a concern for countries which are able to print their own currency. Instead, MMT argues that the nation could simply print as much money as it needs because its fiat currency -- currency not tied to any specific, unchangeable value like gold -- cannot run out of supply.
From Investopedia:
Traditional thinking says such spending would be fiscally irresponsible as the debt would balloon and inflation would skyrocket.But according to MMT, a large government debt isn't the precursor to collapse we have been led to believe it is, countries like the U.S. can sustain much greater deficits without cause for concern, and in fact a small deficit or surplus can be extremely harmful and cause a recession since deficit spending is what builds people's savings.MMT theorists explain that the national debt is simply money the government put into the economy and didn't tax back. They also argue that comparing a government's budgets to that of an average household is a mistake.While supporters of the theory acknowledge that inflation is theoretically a possible outcome from such spending, they say it is highly unlikely, and can be fought with policy decisions in the future if required. They often cite the example of Japan which has much higher public debt than the U.S.According to MMT, the only limit the government has when it comes to spending is the availability of real resources, like workers, construction supplies etc. When government spending is too great with respect to the resources available, inflation can surge if decision makers are not careful.
https://www.investopedia.com/modern-monetary-theory-mmt-4588060
MMT is not widely accepted among economists, and many argue it is effectively the same policy followed by nations like Zimbabwe, which experienced hyperinflation and economic collapse.
submitted by Tombot3000 to tuesday [link] [comments]

Reddit User u/tdacct explains how the US can lose its debt on r/Libertarian (can’t link it to I copied his comment)

I will attempt to answer while avoiding fear mongering as much as possible.
The answer depends a little on your macro economic paradigm: new Keynesian, Austrian, Chicago, etc. If an answer doesn't deal with that fact first, they aren't being forthright. My economic understanding, is that debt/GDP ratio is probably the biggest factor. As long as the ratio doesn't get out of control, we could run deficits forever as the GDP grows.
But what is the hardline limit? For some countries it is 1:2 (many African countries) for some countries it is 3:1 (Japan). I perceive the difference to depend on the social cohesion and stability of the country, as well as its fundamental industrial and natural resource assets value.
Currently the US Federal debt is held by 3 groups: US govt owes itself (yes, the US buys its own bonds!) US investors Foreign investors
US govt owes back pay to Social Security. This was money diverted from the Social Security fund to the general budget to pay for WW2, Cold War, Korean War, Vietnam War and many other things up to today. That accounting was held by buying its own bonds/treasuries issued from the SS office. Now the Social Security tax is less than what is paid out to current retirees, and so that debt is coming due. Going forward, more and more of this debt must shift to US investors and Foreign investors. This will go on a long long time. "The market can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent."
This burden could logically be reduced by cutting SS/medicare/medicaid/dept of defense budgets while raising taxes. But this is a politically non-viable option, for both parts - benefit cuts and tax raising - are against public sentiment.
The end game is when the debt becomes so large that investors become nervous. One serious economic crash can spook those investors and dump their bonds and treasuries. This will cause the interest rate paid on the debt to spike. At this late stage, a death spiral begins, see Illinois and Detroit. Larger interest rates on huge debt, makes interest payments a larger and larger percent of the budget, squeezing out essential services.
The Federal Reserve could take over buying up that debt, but is limited to some degree by the need to be able to use its balance sheet to perform open market actions. If all of their money creation goes to buying US debt, then they won't have effective controls over inflation.
The Federal govt will then be forced to either raise taxes, cut benefits, default on pension promises to previous employees, or begin radicalization. Radicalization could be numerous things, like taking over the Federal Reserve to inflate away the debt; it could be nationalization of health care or some other major industry to validate owning an income stream, or other ideas that I can't even come up with today.
Radicalization like that would likely lead to an economic death spiral: Wiemar Germany, Venezuela, Zimbabwe. But also, unwillingness to deal with the situation can lead to a death spiral of debt and pension burdens vs actual essential service needs: Illinois, Detroit & suburbs, etc.
Even cutting back the deficit and facing the issues will cause economic hardship. The Federal govt deficit pumps cash flow into the economy, it is a method of increasing the total money in circulation. If the Federal govt goes from deficit to surplus for many years to pay off debt, it could be a long period of economic downturn, see 1930s.
submitted by LackLeKarma to TopMindsOfReddit [link] [comments]

Money Is Losing Its Meaning

By throwing trillions of dollars at the coronavirus problem, governments risk undermining trust in currencies.
Doing “whatever it takes” to save the global economy from the coronavirus pandemic is going to cost a lot of money. The U.S. government alone is spending a few trillion dollars, and the Federal Reserve is creating another few trillion dollars to keep the financial system from collapsing. A custom Bloomberg index measuring M2 figures for 12 major economies including the U.S., China, euro zone and Japan shows their aggregate money supply had already more than doubled to $80 trillion from before the 2008-2009 financial crisis.
These numbers are so large that they no longer have any meaning; they are simply abstractions. It’s been some time since people thought about the concept of money and its purpose. The broad idea is that money has value, but that value is not arbitrary. Former Fed Chairman Paul Volcker once said in an interview that “it is a governmental responsibility to maintain the value of the currency they issue. And when they fail to do that, it is something that undermines an essential trust in government.”
The dollar has no real intrinsic value, backed only by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. Under a fiat currency system, the government says that a dollar is a dollar. Its value relative to things such as other currencies and gold is determined on global markets. Gold is considered to be an objective store of value, and the metal’s rise in dollar terms can be expressed another way, which is that the dollar fell in gold terms. That implies the market has rendered a decision on the value, or rather, the purchasing power of the dollar.
The three main functions of a currency are as a unit of account, a medium of exchange and a store of value. It is that last function that is most important. Ideally, a central bank would want its currency to retain its value over time. The era of flexible monetary standards, however, allow central banks to manipulate a currency’s value to help fight recessions as well as smooth out and lengthen business cycles at the expense of inflation. But even low inflation, say on the order of 2%, will greatly erode the purchasing power of a currency over time.
And if there are too many dollars in circulation, the monetarists would say that the value of those dollars has diminished, eventually leading to higher prices for things. That theory hasn’t worked too well in the last decade, because inflation has been low and stable, but it is too soon to declare it discredited. The transmission mechanism that results in inflation is not well understood, even 45 years after the last great period of inflation.
It took a while, but it seems as though the U.S. government has decided that it has no constraints on its spending, as long as the Fed continues to monetize government borrowing by purchasing the debt issued to finance expenditures. It’s not crazy to think government spending may reach $10 trillion – for just one year! And the numbers will go up from there.
Nobody really knows how this is going to turn out. In smaller economies, runaway government spending has resulted in hyperinflation and social unrest, such as well-documented cases in Venezuela and Zimbabwe. Many think that wouldn’t be possible in the U.S. given the dollar’s role as the world’s primary reserve currency. Perhaps, but it’s not one of those questions we’d really want to experiment with.
If all this money that’s being created does spark inflation, or at least boost inflation expectations, it will be difficult - if not impossible - to reverse. Inflation rates soared in 1979, but that was during a time, unlike now, when most government officials believed that balanced budgets and careful spending were important. A blistering series of interest-rate hikes pummeled inflation expectations, but the result was a hurricane-force recession. Argentina, which has more or less been practicing MMT for some time, proves that it’s hard to put the inflation genie back in the bottle. Argentines have been hoarding dollars—the only practical store of value, other than gold—for decades. They probably view recent events in the U.S. with some trepidation.
The counterexample to all this is Japan, which historically has had the most debt relative to the size of its economy and the most radical monetary policy, and yet has a peaceful, productive society with scant inflation. Demographics explain a lot about inflation and inflation expectations, and Japan’s steadily declining and aging population has put downward pressure on prices for years in spite of all the printing. Economists and central banks generally fear deflation more than inflation because it can hinder investment. History has shown that persistently high inflation rips societies apart; in deflation, people band together.
Throughout Venezuela’s economic crisis, we saw images of ordinary Venezuelans tossing their useless bolivars in the streets. That is what happens when money has lost all meaning; it is in jeopardy of becoming a commodity when it is supposed to be a scarce resource. There are a million reasons why the U.S. will never meet the same fate as Venezuela, but you still don’t want to tamper with people’s perception of the value of money. After you throw a few trillion dollars around, people start to believe that it’s all a big joke.
This column does not necessarily reflect the opinion of Bloomberg LP and its owners.
To contact the author of this story: Jared Dillian at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
To contact the editor responsible for this story: Robert Burgess at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
submitted by SesshamoNekodearuzo to what_couldve_been_if [link] [comments]

[MODPOST] Global Economic Report 2021

Global Economic Report 2021

How the Economic System Works:
Global/National Modifier Report:
  • I do intend to upload the file/share a spreadsheet, I just needed to get this out before it waits too long so we're gonna use this shitty format again.
  • Slight uptick for Brazil due to positive business environment (investment opportunities in the Amazon). South American economy is generally poor, however.
  • Ecuador's peculiar pegging of its currency to the Singapore Dollar, which lacks the characteristics of a good peg and is itself not free-floating, coupled with its very low foreign exchange reserves have led to a weak Ecuadorian Sucre, high inflation and high interest rates.
  • Iran begins to see relief from sanctions due to dealings with European Union. Recession likely to continue to ease up. Iran still economically isolated though.
  • Indonesia, Morocco, the United States, and Hong Kong suffering economic affects of political instability.
  • Many recessions such as in Venezuela and Turkey continue unaddressed but could bottom out soon if the global economic situation does not continue to deteriorate further.
  • Ambitious Indian development projects produce slight uptick in business and market confidence. Desired structural reforms continue to escape the South Asian giant.
  • Argentina falls deeper into recession as President Alberto Fernandez, a populist unlikely to continue the market policies of the former President and his landmark IMF program, takes office.
  • Large increase in Russian defense spending on modernization creates a concern about an arms race and that country's budget balance.
Global Modifier: -0.50%
Country 2019 GDP 2019 Population Autonomous Growth National Modifier Random Factor Total Growth 2020 GDP 2020 Population 2020 GDP per Capita
Afghanistan $20,184,301,000 37,000,000 4.00% -0.56% 2.94% $20,777,719,449 37,514,000 $554
Albania $15,767,514,400 2,865,000 3.43% -0.44% 2.49% $16,159,695,485 2,861,000 $5,648
Algeria $183,797,202,600 44,253,000 2.35% 0.07% 1.92% $187,325,551,929 45,058,000 $4,157
Angola $107,444,779,200 31,031,000 0.77% -0.03% 0.24% $107,699,716,358 31,962,000 $3,370
Antigua and Barbuda $1,688,113,200 94,000 3.73% 0.06% 3.29% $1,743,652,124 95,000 $18,354
Argentina $509,957,955,600 45,551,000 0.00% -2.00% -0.41% -2.91% $495,118,179,092 46,054,000 $10,751
Armenia $12,994,317,000 2,992,000 4.20% -0.20% 3.50% $13,449,118,095 2,992,000 $4,495
Aruba $2,842,348,900 112,000 0.68% 0.00% 0.18% $2,847,465,128 112,000 $25,424
Australia $1,441,818,365,000 25,974,000 2.42% 0.38% 2.30% $1,475,015,140,567 26,386,000 $55,901
Austria $464,821,900,900 9,012,000 1.84% 0.16% 1.50% $471,771,692,594 9,069,000 $52,020
Azerbaijan $46,835,041,600 10,180,000 2.29% 0.28% 2.07% $47,802,681,944 10,302,000 $4,640
Bahamas, The $13,038,575,200 385,000 1.80% -0.07% 1.23% $13,198,949,675 389,000 $33,930
Bahrain $38,784,953,900 1,541,000 2.16% -0.18% 1.48% $39,358,971,218 1,572,000 $25,038
Bangladesh $311,100,608,000 168,312,000 7.13% 0.05% 6.68% $331,875,529,511 170,056,000 $1,952
Barbados $5,126,992,500 288,000 -0.34% -0.14% -0.98% $5,076,685,828 289,000 $17,566
Belarus $60,370,644,600 9,363,000 2.02% 0.07% 1.59% $61,330,903,732 9,316,000 $6,583
Belgium $538,591,160,600 11,529,000 1.26% -0.02% 0.74% $542,602,848,699 11,589,000 $46,821
Belize $1,964,077,500 417,000 2.27% 0.07% 1.84% $2,000,305,802 428,000 $4,674
Benin $11,008,076,800 12,026,000 5.85% -0.63% 4.72% $11,527,658,025 12,335,000 $935
Bhutan $2,748,892,800 844,000 4.91% 0.18% 4.59% $2,875,066,980 857,000 $3,355
Bolivia $42,875,914,000 11,611,000 4.35% 0.20% 4.05% $44,612,518,444 11,796,000 $3,782
Bosnia and Herzegovina $20,342,239,200 3,498,000 2.74% 0.36% 2.60% $20,871,137,419 3,492,000 $5,977
Botswana $19,716,124,400 2,422,000 3.78% 0.19% 3.47% $20,400,990,867 2,467,000 $8,270
Brazil $1,907,976,319,200 211,203,000 1.51% 0.25% -0.18% 1.08% $1,928,646,062,658 212,561,000 $9,073
Brunei Darussalam $14,712,873,600 445,000 2.89% 0.32% 2.71% $15,111,592,475 450,000 $33,581
Bulgaria $66,684,519,500 6,930,000 2.75% -0.13% 2.12% $68,095,604,347 6,889,000 $9,885
Burkina Faso $14,840,788,000 20,542,000 5.92% 0.54% 5.96% $15,725,298,965 21,099,000 $745
Burundi $3,440,810,400 11,875,000 0.99% -0.01% 0.48% $3,457,336,717 12,231,000 $283
Cabo Verde $2,057,468,000 566,000 3.78% 0.35% 3.63% $2,132,066,802 573,000 $3,721
Cambodia $25,903,644,900 16,744,000 6.72% 1.14% 7.36% $27,809,839,181 16,995,000 $1,636
Cameroon $40,292,966,000 26,144,000 4.16% 0.46% 4.12% $41,954,745,598 26,798,000 $1,566
Canada $1,732,779,337,500 37,821,000 1.81% -0.25% 1.06% $1,751,131,045,938 38,176,000 $45,870
Central African Republic $2,273,929,500 5,282,000 3.35% 0.47% 3.32% $2,349,423,959 5,386,000 $436
Chad $11,286,970,300 13,122,000 3.43% -0.56% 2.37% $11,554,471,496 13,450,000 $859
Chile $308,280,030,800 18,930,000 3.08% 0.19% 2.77% $316,819,387,653 19,125,000 $16,566
China, People's Republic of $14,360,663,997,800 1,404,444,000 6.00% 0.28% 5.78% $15,190,710,376,873 1,408,166,000 $10,788
Colombia $344,439,876,000 50,886,000 3.12% -0.35% 2.27% $352,273,273,786 51,395,000 $6,854
Comoros $759,437,000 896,000 2.62% 0.04% 2.16% $775,808,621 920,000 $843
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the $44,443,576,800 100,816,000 4.69% 0.73% 4.92% $46,631,951,586 103,840,000 $449
Congo, Republic of $11,870,468,000 4,682,000 3.53% -0.57% 2.46% $12,162,481,513 4,799,000 $2,534
Costa Rica $60,888,291,400 5,142,000 3.08% 0.10% 2.68% $62,518,990,550 5,202,000 $12,018
Croatia $62,120,236,800 4,039,000 2.69% 0.38% 2.57% $63,716,726,886 4,011,000 $15,885
Cyprus $25,214,514,000 875,000 3.10% 0.08% 2.68% $25,890,262,975 880,000 $29,421
Czech Republic $248,587,404,000 10,619,000 2.62% 0.40% 2.52% $254,851,806,581 10,632,000 $23,970
Côte d'Ivoire $46,590,746,400 26,958,000 7.02% -0.33% 6.19% $49,472,454,657 27,659,000 $1,789
Denmark $355,400,274,600 5,870,000 1.43% 0.04% 0.97% $358,846,580,293 5,913,000 $60,688
Djibouti $2,317,345,200 1,109,000 6.27% -0.01% 5.76% $2,450,845,350 1,140,000 $2,150
Dominica $536,138,200 71,000 6.00% 0.82% 6.32% $570,022,134 71,000 $8,028
Dominican Republic $84,970,812,000 10,477,000 5.35% -0.36% 4.49% $88,784,714,022 10,582,000 $8,390
Ecuador $106,726,169,700 17,511,000 0.90% -1.00% -0.08% -0.68% $106,000,431,746 17,757,000 $5,970
Egypt $261,537,832,000 101,493,000 4.69% -0.61% 3.58% $270,898,508,769 103,827,000 $2,609
El Salvador $26,721,453,500 6,763,000 2.30% -0.21% 1.59% $27,146,000,714 6,825,000 $3,977
Equatorial Guinea $13,085,755,200 1,406,000 -3.77% -0.85% -5.12% $12,416,121,418 1,452,000 $8,551
Eritrea $6,927,334,700 6,269,000 4.20% 0.01% 3.71% $7,184,002,947 6,376,000 $1,127
Estonia $31,042,519,200 1,320,000 2.96% -0.44% 2.02% $31,668,072,996 1,320,000 $23,991
Eswatini $4,650,458,100 1,116,000 0.50% 0.00% 0.00% $4,650,458,100 1,124,000 $4,137
Ethiopia $85,505,162,900 97,175,000 7.75% 0.39% 7.64% $92,037,757,346 98,729,000 $932
Fiji $5,296,618,200 900,000 3.05% 0.17% 2.72% $5,440,926,970 905,000 $6,012
Finland $280,717,291,600 5,561,000 1.48% -0.08% 0.90% $283,242,045,907 5,579,000 $50,769
France $2,803,559,570,400 65,319,000 1.30% -0.10% 0.70% $2,823,320,417,554 65,618,000 $43,027
Gabon $17,440,088,700 2,108,000 2.61% -0.13% 1.98% $17,785,243,910 2,135,000 $8,330
Gambia, The $1,690,411,800 2,309,000 4.79% 0.07% 4.36% $1,764,077,897 2,382,000 $741
Georgia $17,184,274,800 3,676,000 4.40% 0.77% 4.67% $17,986,155,550 3,707,000 $4,852
Germany $4,020,387,930,000 82,960,000 1.11% 0.04% 0.65% $4,046,520,451,545 82,909,000 $48,807
Ghana $69,819,561,000 30,779,000 7.62% -1.14% 5.98% $73,996,040,194 31,282,000 $2,365
Greece $223,457,030,300 10,629,000 1.40% 0.08% 0.98% $225,646,909,197 10,574,000 $21,340
Grenada $1,238,577,600 109,000 3.68% -0.60% 2.58% $1,270,532,902 110,000 $11,550
Guatemala $81,150,922,500 17,971,000 3.23% -0.16% 2.57% $83,236,255,296 18,336,000 $4,539
Guinea $12,391,688,400 13,967,000 6.16% 1.09% 6.75% $13,227,902,064 14,317,000 $924
Guinea-Bissau $1,531,366,400 1,815,000 4.63% 0.78% 4.91% $1,606,486,883 1,855,000 $866
Guyana $3,781,440,000 787,000 3.56% 0.19% 3.25% $3,904,199,293 789,000 $4,948
Haiti $9,665,970,000 11,378,000 1.58% 0.03% 1.11% $9,773,613,757 11,507,000 $849
Honduras $24,403,361,400 9,759,000 3.54% 0.35% 3.39% $25,231,079,049 9,927,000 $2,542
Hong Kong SAR $372,978,049,400 7,623,000 2.93% -3.00% 0.10% -0.47% $371,212,619,966 7,667,000 $48,417
Hungary $160,763,347,500 9,738,000 3.09% 0.43% 3.02% $165,614,016,140 9,718,000 $17,042
Iceland $26,342,699,600 364,000 2.57% 0.24% 2.31% $26,951,615,093 370,000 $72,842
India $2,889,802,720,200 1,369,557,000 7.34% 0.10% 0.82% 7.76% $3,114,051,411,288 1,387,575,000 $2,244
Indonesia $1,072,963,227,600 269,865,000 5.26% -2.00% 0.10% 2.86% $1,103,682,489,947 272,762,000 $4,046
Iran $423,238,945,000 84,149,000 -1.71% -2.00% -0.63% -4.84% $402,752,897,520 84,995,000 $4,739
Iraq $231,631,322,000 40,132,000 2.87% -0.10% 2.27% $236,890,054,922 41,176,000 $5,753
Ireland $390,025,317,500 5,011,000 4.37% 0.03% 3.90% $405,236,304,883 5,061,000 $80,070
Israel $379,089,075,000 9,230,000 3.42% 0.13% 3.05% $390,669,671,864 9,410,000 $41,516
Italy $2,068,678,258,300 60,719,000 0.26% 0.03% -0.21% $2,064,283,884,182 60,692,000 $34,012
Jamaica $15,664,125,400 2,891,000 0.96% -0.04% 0.42% $15,729,819,793 2,906,000 $5,413
Japan $5,017,670,746,800 125,751,000 0.99% -0.07% 0.42% $5,038,638,528,496 125,277,000 $40,220
Jordan $43,226,894,200 10,209,000 2.36% -0.10% 1.76% $43,987,687,538 10,320,000 $4,262
Kazakhstan $175,279,984,200 19,015,000 3.78% 0.12% 3.40% $181,242,690,572 19,297,000 $9,392
Kenya $94,771,392,000 50,722,000 5.64% 0.97% 6.11% $100,563,072,795 52,107,000 $1,930
Kiribati $192,798,900 119,000 2.21% -0.31% 1.40% $195,493,995 121,000 $1,616
Korea, Republic of $1,649,221,401,600 52,085,000 2.86% -0.47% 1.89% $1,680,361,700,247 52,297,000 $32,131
Kosovo $8,299,441,900 1,842,000 3.92% 0.66% 4.08% $8,638,260,328 1,857,000 $4,652
Kuwait $143,729,950,000 4,832,000 1.70% 0.17% 1.37% $145,699,050,315 4,967,000 $29,333
Kyrgyz Republic $8,334,171,400 6,634,000 3.94% -0.06% 3.38% $8,615,714,863 6,767,000 $1,273
Lao P.D.R. $19,818,393,400 6,973,000 6.96% -0.33% 6.13% $21,032,420,135 7,073,000 $2,974
Latvia $35,739,072,600 1,925,000 2.83% 0.35% 2.68% $36,697,854,448 1,921,000 $19,104
Lebanon $56,978,730,900 6,020,000 1.64% 0.15% 1.29% $57,714,792,506 5,957,000 $9,689
Lesotho $2,874,137,200 2,062,000 2.58% 0.19% 2.27% $2,939,414,952 2,087,000 $1,408
Liberia $3,256,472,700 4,694,000 2.07% 0.29% 1.86% $3,317,052,960 4,812,000 $689
Libya $45,400,219,200 6,644,000 4.00% 0.18% 3.68% $47,070,947,267 6,710,000 $7,015
Lithuania $54,618,748,900 2,708,000 2.64% -0.17% 1.97% $55,692,421,094 2,670,000 $20,859
Luxembourg $70,558,020,000 633,000 2.38% -0.03% 1.85% $71,860,777,624 648,000 $110,896
Macao SAR $57,141,342,000 682,000 5.67% -0.59% 4.58% $59,758,242,308 694,000 $86,107
Madagascar $12,576,720,000 27,799,000 4.03% 0.13% 3.66% $13,036,456,283 28,557,000 $457
Malawi $7,158,372,500 20,873,000 4.09% -0.23% 3.36% $7,398,611,820 21,474,000 $345
Malaysia $370,116,486,000 33,221,000 4.87% -0.34% 4.03% $385,049,003,862 33,645,000 $11,444
Maldives $5,611,106,600 378,000 6.00% 0.11% 5.61% $5,925,923,687 384,000 $15,432
Mali $17,877,917,400 19,667,000 4.83% 0.86% 5.19% $18,805,618,787 20,257,000 $928
Malta $15,134,517,000 476,000 5.39% -0.26% 4.63% $15,835,290,999 479,000 $33,059
Marshall Islands $217,509,600 58,000 2.40% -0.12% 1.78% $221,374,680 59,000 $3,752
Mauritania $5,451,103,000 4,805,000 4.41% -0.78% 3.13% $5,621,706,005 4,941,000 $1,138
Mauritius $14,686,749,900 1,267,000 3.82% -0.46% 2.86% $15,106,078,862 1,267,000 $11,923
Mexico $1,239,385,002,900 127,092,000 1.92% 0.17% 1.59% $1,259,136,292,992 128,231,000 $9,819
Micronesia, Fed. States of $377,253,800 103,000 1.36% -0.10% 0.76% $380,107,211 103,000 $3,690
Moldova $11,715,329,200 3,539,000 3.66% -0.42% 2.74% $12,036,045,212 3,536,000 $3,404
Mongolia $13,953,267,600 3,363,000 6.50% -0.69% 5.31% $14,694,862,632 3,426,000 $4,289
Montenegro $5,565,680,600 625,000 2.92% -0.37% 2.05% $5,679,979,441 626,000 $9,073
Morocco $121,207,570,500 35,952,000 3.46% -1.00% -0.23% 1.73% $123,303,726,878 36,313,000 $3,396
Mozambique $14,886,810,400 31,993,000 4.57% -0.62% 3.45% $15,400,179,801 32,848,000 $469
Myanmar $73,632,366,000 53,378,000 6.40% -0.18% 5.72% $77,847,707,389 53,722,000 $1,449
Namibia $13,984,358,400 2,507,000 1.63% -0.03% 1.10% $14,137,889,704 2,555,000 $5,533
Nauru $115,315,200 13,000 1.00% -0.05% 0.45% $115,834,118 13,000 $8,910
Nepal $30,307,342,800 30,293,000 5.96% 0.45% 5.91% $32,097,955,717 30,630,000 $1,048
Netherlands $928,235,703,200 17,290,000 1.71% -0.03% 1.18% $939,214,200,017 17,340,000 $54,165
New Zealand $208,875,567,600 5,089,000 2.61% 0.01% 2.12% $213,301,830,764 5,158,000 $41,354
Nicaragua $12,498,316,600 6,430,000 -0.49% -4.51% 0.42% -5.08% $11,863,402,117 6,502,000 $1,825
Niger $9,853,368,000 20,557,000 5.71% 0.16% 5.37% $10,382,105,699 21,194,000 $490
Nigeria $404,937,311,000 204,684,000 2.75% 0.14% 2.39% $414,618,993,981 210,313,000 $1,971
North Macedonia $12,957,853,200 2,080,000 2.26% 0.04% 1.80% $13,190,544,830 2,081,000 $6,339
Norway $441,374,067,600 5,388,000 1.64% 0.14% 1.28% $447,023,655,665 5,420,000 $82,477
Oman $82,826,925,300 4,533,000 1.92% -0.14% 1.28% $83,886,607,962 4,678,000 $17,932
Pakistan $321,572,016,000 208,570,000 3.85% 0.24% 3.59% $333,113,527,992 212,482,000 $1,568
Palau $301,009,500 19,000 0.79% -0.04% 0.25% $301,762,936 19,000 $15,882
Panama $69,053,154,000 4,279,000 5.63% 0.52% 5.65% $72,952,355,429 4,364,000 $16,717
Papua New Guinea $21,990,548,500 8,781,000 3.59% 0.09% 3.18% $22,689,114,924 8,964,000 $2,531
Paraguay $42,864,601,200 7,253,000 4.05% -0.31% 3.24% $44,253,544,172 7,353,000 $6,018
Peru $233,603,071,900 32,824,000 3.91% -0.36% 3.05% $240,724,426,152 33,149,000 $7,262
Philippines $349,406,460,600 110,907,000 6.24% -0.40% 5.34% $368,062,647,981 113,125,000 $3,254
Poland $608,342,171,500 37,935,000 3.98% -0.33% 3.15% $627,501,262,980 37,905,000 $16,555
Portugal $241,324,418,000 10,258,000 1.34% -0.08% 0.76% $243,149,708,143 10,239,000 $23,747
Puerto Rico $102,716,233,600 3,154,000 1.00% -2.50% 0.00% -2.00% $100,661,908,928 3,106,000 $32,409
Qatar $197,915,580,000 2,760,000 3.88% -1.00% -0.29% 2.09% $202,042,419,715 2,767,000 $73,019
Romania $247,718,112,800 19,521,000 3.40% -0.36% 2.54% $254,020,662,118 19,520,000 $13,013
Russian Federation $1,653,814,357,800 143,787,000 1.46% -0.20% 0.11% 0.87% $1,668,272,704,534 143,637,000 $11,615
Rwanda $10,307,070,700 12,589,000 7.48% -0.42% 6.56% $10,983,464,406 12,880,000 $853
Saint Kitts and Nevis $1,058,537,200 57,000 2.45% -0.17% 1.78% $1,077,382,370 58,000 $18,576
Saint Lucia $1,942,963,200 179,000 2.19% 0.22% 1.91% $1,980,115,011 180,000 $11,001
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines $840,868,000 111,000 1.36% -0.11% 0.75% $847,199,991 111,000 $7,632
Samoa $891,393,300 203,000 2.02% -0.20% 1.32% $903,148,887 205,000 $4,406
San Marino $1,644,388,200 34,000 0.50% -1.00% 0.04% -0.96% $1,628,602,073 34,000 $47,900
Saudi Arabia $792,733,527,300 34,545,000 2.03% -0.25% 1.28% $802,873,309,781 35,236,000 $22,786
Senegal $25,497,452,400 17,244,000 6.07% 0.24% 5.81% $26,979,395,239 17,735,000 $1,521
Serbia $52,155,334,700 6,937,000 2.59% -0.25% 1.84% $53,113,570,440 6,909,000 $7,688
Seychelles $1,621,605,700 97,000 4.00% -0.30% 3.20% $1,673,438,115 98,000 $17,076
Sierra Leone $4,110,674,400 7,907,000 4.77% 0.56% 4.83% $4,309,107,864 8,081,000 $533
Singapore $367,861,738,300 5,722,000 3.50% -0.35% 2.65% $377,618,992,225 5,764,000 $65,513
Slovak Republic $110,869,717,000 5,459,000 3.18% -0.19% 2.49% $113,627,685,203 5,467,000 $20,784
Slovenia $55,798,745,400 2,071,000 2.80% 0.22% 2.52% $57,205,550,133 2,073,000 $27,596
Solomon Islands $1,456,182,400 655,000 3.38% -0.16% 2.72% $1,495,755,260 670,000 $2,232
Somalia $7,728,336,000 2.81% -0.40% 1.91% $7,875,689,606 #DIV/0!
South Africa $370,748,758,500 59,575,000 1.29% 0.12% 0.91% $374,107,966,948 60,522,000 $6,181
South Sudan, Republic of $4,325,829,000 13,793,000 6.00% 1.00% 0.52% 7.02% $4,629,502,196 14,220,000 $326
Spain $1,446,397,456,000 46,866,000 1.67% -0.17% 1.00% $1,460,909,643,809 47,077,000 $31,032
Sri Lanka $90,587,376,400 22,184,000 4.07% -0.49% 3.08% $93,376,095,057 22,436,000 $4,162
Sudan $33,106,279,500 44,345,000 -1.18% -1.12% 0.11% -2.69% $32,215,720,581 45,498,000 $708
Suriname $3,507,534,500 605,000 1.84% 0.00% 1.34% $3,554,450,431 613,000 $5,798
Sweden $556,921,917,500 10,421,000 1.71% 0.12% 1.33% $564,310,414,939 10,520,000 $53,642
Switzerland $710,998,625,000 8,688,000 1.51% 0.08% 1.09% $718,763,591,802 8,792,000 $81,752
Syria #VALUE! #DIV/0! #VALUE! #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #VALUE! #VALUE! #VALUE!
São Tomé and Príncipe $462,919,000 227,000 3.96% -0.37% 3.09% $477,200,753 232,000 $2,057
Taiwan Province of China $600,176,855,300 23,666,000 2.74% 0.25% 2.49% $615,135,808,739 23,697,000 $25,958
Tajikistan $7,844,112,000 9,475,000 6.14% 0.95% 6.59% $8,361,276,681 9,657,000 $866
Tanzania $60,222,769,600 53,108,000 5.62% -0.77% 4.35% $62,843,555,037 54,170,000 $1,160
Thailand $505,607,910,300 68,016,000 3.58% -0.57% 2.51% $518,286,411,687 68,101,000 $7,611
Timor-Leste $3,223,797,000 1,329,000 2.93% 0.41% 2.84% $3,315,382,142 1,359,000 $2,440
Togo $5,593,752,000 8,401,000 5.13% -0.20% 4.43% $5,841,606,066 8,612,000 $678
Tonga $487,954,000 101,000 3.04% -0.21% 2.33% $499,329,243 101,000 $4,944
Trinidad and Tobago $22,255,222,500 1,388,000 -0.50% 0.05% -0.95% $22,043,932,766 1,394,000 $15,813
Tunisia $40,964,650,400 11,903,000 2.37% 0.32% 2.19% $41,862,893,461 12,019,000 $3,483
Turkey $746,194,300,800 84,040,000 2.33% -4.00% 0.13% -2.04% $730,938,019,141 85,048,000 $8,594
Turkmenistan $47,175,511,600 6,031,000 7.19% -0.32% 6.37% $50,178,733,260 6,091,000 $8,238
Tuvalu $46,926,000 11,000 3.32% 0.37% 3.19% $48,422,655 11,000 $4,402
Uganda $29,632,151,400 41,222,000 5.76% -0.07% 5.19% $31,170,239,646 42,460,000 $734
Ukraine $128,303,709,100 41,711,000 2.28% -0.02% 1.76% $130,561,854,380 41,544,000 $3,143
United Arab Emirates $435,293,338,500 11,077,000 2.38% 0.06% 1.94% $443,751,219,974 11,416,000 $38,871
United Kingdom $2,852,121,745,200 67,255,000 1.33% -1.50% 0.01% -0.66% $2,833,358,241,234 67,612,000 $41,906
United States $20,838,350,040,000 331,811,000 2.18% -1.50% 0.02% 0.20% $20,879,521,567,958 334,079,000 $62,499
Uruguay $61,377,582,000 3,531,000 2.63% -0.41% 1.72% $62,433,090,418 3,543,000 $17,622
Uzbekistan $42,837,026,700 33,657,000 6.61% -1.07% 5.04% $44,994,844,563 34,117,000 $1,319
Vanuatu $950,179,200 298,000 2.98% 0.06% 2.54% $974,284,958 305,000 $3,194
Venezuela $72,758,005,200 27,131,000 1.00% -15.00% -2.50% -17.00% $60,389,144,316 27,131,000 $2,226
Vietnam $258,908,983,200 96,407,000 6.49% 0.69% 6.68% $276,201,749,560 97,312,000 $2,838
Yemen $27,503,416,600 32,471,000 3.00% -1.50% 0.16% 1.16% $27,822,456,233 33,283,000 $836
Zambia $25,909,191,000 18,882,000 4.11% -0.66% 2.95% $26,672,491,469 19,456,000 $1,371
Zimbabwe $24,525,414,900 16,064,000 1.81% -7.01% -0.68% -6.38% $22,960,693,429 16,481,000 $1,393
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Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe and Venezuela Shortages and worries over inflation stalk Zimbabwe inflation in zimbabwe Zimbabwe: Hyperinflation Nation - YouTube Inflation, Hurt and Loss: Zimbabwe at 40

Zimbabwe Inflation Rate - data, historical chart, forecasts and calendar of releases - was last updated on November of 2020. Inflation Rate in Zimbabwe is expected to be 249.00 percent by the end of this quarter, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analysts expectations. Looking forward, we estimate Inflation Rate in Zimbabwe to stand at 50.00 in 12 months time. In the long ... Diese Werte, historische Daten, Prognosen, Statistiken, Diagramme und ökonomische Kalender - Simbabwe - Inflationsrate. The other day, when I was on a panel discussing unsustainable deficits in the U.S., Eurozone and Japan, the risk of inflation and Zimbabwe style hyperinflation came up. When asked about the difference about Japan and Zimbabwe, I quipped that there isn’t any. My co-panelists were all over me, arguing Japan is different. Notably that Japan could not possibly go broke because, unlike Zimbabwe ... Monthly inflation rate in Japan was 0.00% in December 2019. That is 0.10 less than it was in November 2019 and 0.29 more than in December 2018. At the same time, 2019 year to date inflation rate is 0.79% and year over year inflation rate is 0.79%. In 2019 Japan ranks #6 in the world by yearly inflation rate. Historical Inflation Rates for Japan (1971 to 2014) Current Consumer Price Index 260.280 Current Annual Inflation Rate 1.37% Released October 13, 2020 for the year ending September 2020 Next Data Release November 12 th 2020 You are here: Home » Blog » Inflation » Hyperinflation Articles » Zimbabwe Hyperinflation and the U.S. Dollar. Zimbabwe Hyperinflation and the U.S. Dollar ...

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Hyperinflation in Zimbabwe and Venezuela

DEMYSTIFYING HYPER INFLATION REPORTING IN ZIMBABWE webinar recording - 20 May 2020 Zimbabwe is one of the world's poorest countries, with the highest inflation rate. A little over a decade ago the rate was 90 sextillion percent year on year... watch as tishawna pentley a beautiful lady from zimbabwe dissects, the origin, the effects and the solutions of inflation that took place in zimbabwe, it was insighful and funny, spoiler alert you ... According to official data, Zimbabwe's annual rate of inflation reached 175 percent in June. ZTN's Senior Business correspondent Andy Hodges explains what this means for the "man on the street". Gold used as a hedge against hyperinflation. If you owned gold in Zimbabwe or Venezuela you would have been protected against rising prices. https://www.itmt...

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